¿Dónde construir los ductos en una edificación?

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¿Dónde construir los ductos en una edificación?

Los ductos dentro de una edificación son tan importantes como los elementos estructurales en una edificación; así en todo proyecto los planos deben, por lo menos, contener los servicios que se van a prestar al proyecto, dentro de los cuales se encuentran: las instalaciones eléctricas, sanitarias, telefónicas, de gas, etc, esto con el fin de clarificar el proyecto a todas las personas que harán parte del mismo. La NSR-10 en el título C.6.3 – conductos y tuberías embebidas en el concreto, da aspectos a considerar para la instalación de los ductos para este tipo de servicios.

Las columnas y los nudos por su importante función estructural no deberían contener ningún tipo de tubería, pero desafortunadamente, en contra de todos los preceptos se acostumbra colocar tubos o accesorios para diferentes usos a veces olvidando la seguridad estructural. Lo recomendable es que esas tuberías deben insertarse dentro de la estructura y en algunos casos, con diámetros y cantidades considerables. Cada día es notorio el alto precio de la construcción por lo que cada apartamento u oficina reduce su área pero simultáneamente se aumentan los requerimientos de instalaciones por lo que todos esos sistemas de diseño de tuberías requieren la labor conjunta de profesionales para que coordinadamente, establezcan sus necesidades sin poner en riesgo la funcionalidad y la seguridad de la estructura. Antes de iniciarse la obra, debe coordinarse ese conjunto de tuberías para que en el proceso constructivo, se respete el trazado de tuberías, la localización de puntos y el uso de los ductos.

Pases de tuberías en vigas y placas

Los ductos horizontales hacen relación con los pases que deben permitirse en vigas, placas y viguetas, siempre y cuando se localicen apropiadamente dentro de la longitud del elemento. Para tal efecto, deben comprenderse algunos aspectos de la mecánica estructural. Los diagramas de momento flector y fuerza cortante de una viga, señalan el estado de tensión que experimenta internamente el elemento estructural sometido a las cargas muertas, vivas y a las fuerzas sísmicas.

Conclusión

Los ductos, elementos primordiales dentro de un proyecto de edificación deben ser debidamente diseñados y calculados, con el fin de que sea funcional todo el sistema en el proyecto; además es recomendable tener todo en conjunto para que la construcción sea mucho más fácil y no se presenten inconvenientes estructurales.

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